Additive Manufacturing (AM) has been recognized as an innovative technology for future manufacturing systems. AM technology has made considerable progress in the use of materials, machines and processes with its great potential to change many things from everyday life to industrial products. In recent years, 4D Printing (4DP) has attracted widespread attention as a new technology to overcome
the limitations of AM.
4D Printing is defined as a layer-by-layer manufacturing process to produce parts that are able to change its shape or assemble itself into a new configuration over time.
This project provides an understanding of shape change behaviour and structures that can be achieved through 4D Printing. It also explores how the use of Computer-Aided- Design (CAD) can influence the shape change effect. The outcome of this research provides designers and engineers an understanding of the potential use of predictive behaviour that can be realized using 4DP and for designers and engineers to implement appropriate design strategies.

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